by Marco C. Gonçalves, Professor of Civil Procedure, University of Minho
The free movement of people, goods and services in the European Union – as a fundamental pillar for the construction of an internal market – led, inevitably, to an increase of the cross-border disputes, that is to say, disputes that are connected with two or more different Member States.
Consequently, this requires the European Union to adopt appropriate procedural instruments to allow the fast and effective resolution of these conflicts, within an area of freedom, security and justice.
In this regard, it is a fact that the European Union has been adopting a set of normative instruments of particular importance to guarantee access to justice in civil and commercial matters, mainly focused on judicial cooperation between the different Member States. In particular, stands out the definition of common rules on jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters , service of judicial and extrajudicial acts , taking of evidence  and recovery of debts .
In any case, with regard to the judicial protection of credit rights in the European Union, the difficulties and problems that arise with regard to the effective satisfaction of creditors demand the urgent adoption of normative instruments that guarantee the protection and adequate satisfaction of these rights.
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